Published30 Aug Abstract Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration.
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Plants Basel. Published online Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Native Cerrado plants are exposed to soils with low pH and high availability of Al. In this study, we measured the Al content in adult plants, and investigated the effects of various Al doses on germination and early development of Eugenia dysenterica plants. For germination tests, the seeds were soaked in Al solution and evaluated for twenty days in growth chambers.
In a second experiment, young plants were cultivated in hydroponic systems with various Al concentrations to evaluate the morphological, anatomical and physiological characteristics of E. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the accumulation of phenolic compounds were greatest at the highest Al doses, preventing changes in gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence. Adult E. These data suggest that E. Keywords: accumulation, Al tolerance, cerrado, cagaita, root growth, Al pollution 1.
Introduction Aluminum Al toxicity is a limiting abiotic stress factor for many plants worldwide [ 1 , 2 ]. In addition to being naturally abundant in acid soils, gradual increases in Al content in soils and waters have been reported, attributed to intense industrial metallurgy, packaging, transportation, construction, electrical, and chemical plant activities.
These industries discard about 5 million tonnes aluminum-rich wastes per year worldwide [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. Consequently, agricultural areas close to industries and use of industrial wastewater rich in aluminum are concerns for the cultivation of agricultural crops and the development of native species in these regions [ 7 , 8 ].
Among Al-sensitive species, some trees, including Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus, are not able to complex Al via organic acids released by the root system [ 2 ]. In these species, Al inhibits root growth and secondary root formation [ 9 ] and damages mesophyll leaf cells [ 10 ], leading to inhibition of photosynthesis [ 11 , 12 ].
Some native plants from tropical regions with acidic and nutrient-poor soils have evolved survival strategies to deal with high Al saturation, in addition to acid and nutritional conditions; these species include some belonging to the Rubiaceae Melaleuca cajuputi and Coccocypselum sp.
Industrial activity has gradually modified soil and water conditions in the vicinity of factories. There are a few studies on the relationship between Al and seed germination, as well as physiological and anatomical characteristics of native Brazilian Cerrado plants [ 22 , 23 ]. However, even plants considered to be Al-tolerant and Al-accumulators may suffer Al toxicity effects in conditions of continuous exposure to Al released by industrial processes [ 22 ].
Eugenia dysenterica DC is a native Brazilian Cerrado species from the Myrtaceae family, popularly known as cagaita [ 24 , 25 ]. The fruit of the plant has substantial economic potential [ 26 ]. Investigation of native Cerrado species with potential for high tolerance to Al is essential to understand these tolerance mechanisms. Such knowledge is also useful for the preservation of species under excessive Al conditions, in natural or even in contaminated environments [ 27 , 28 ].
Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate various Al concentrations i on seed germination and seed anatomical traits and, ii morphoanatomical and physiological traits in young plants of Eugenia dysenterica grown under a hydroponic system. Material and Methods 2. Calcium chloride solution only was used as the control.
The Germitest paper was moistened with 2. The seeds were recorded as germinated when root protrusion achieved 2 mm. Root diameter measurements on germination were performed at 35 days after sowing DAS at a height of one centimeter at the base of the stem. Morphoanatomical Seed Characterization E. The samples were first fixed in Karnovsky solution [ 30 ] for 24 h. Subsequently, they were prewashed in a phosphate buffer 0. The solution pH was adjusted to 4. Visible Root and Leaf Symptoms Visible symptoms were recorded photographically.
Images covered the leaf and root that best represented each treatment. Root Growth Measurements Root measurements were performed daily during the 20 days of Al plant exposure. Morphoanatomical Root and Leaf Characterization For the morphoanatomical analyses, 3—5-cm root and 3 cm2 leaflet E.
The material was washed and processed as described in Item 2. The plant material was stained with toluidine blue to obtain epidermis images for morphoanatomical observations, i.
Al Content Quantification Al content was determined in both adult trees from which fruits and seeds were collected and from experimental plants. Leaf and bark samples were collected from five adult plants in full production. Al content was also evaluated in E. Subsequently, the tube volume was brought to 25 mL with deionized water, as described by Malavolta et al.
Blue formazan absorbance produced by the NBT photoreduction was determined at nm [ 39 ]. Catalase activity was determined by adding 0. Peroxidase activity was determined by the addition of 0. Enzymatic activity was calculated using a molar extinction coefficient of 2. The protein content in the enzymatic extracts was quantified according to the methodology proposed by Bradford [ 45 ] at nm. The results were compared to a standard bovine serum albumin BSA curve and used to express enzymatic activity on a protein basis.
Statistical Analyses The quantitative data were first subjected to homogeneity analysis Levene test and error normality assessment Shapiro-Wilk test. Results 3.
Plants Basel. Published online Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Native Cerrado plants are exposed to soils with low pH and high availability of Al.
They occur either alone or in threes, and open between August and September, undergoing both self- and cross-pollination. The fruits up to per tree ripen mostly over a two-month period, between September and December depending on the climate. They fall from the tree when fully ripe, roughly at the start of the rainy season. Uses[ edit ] The fruits is edible raw, but when consumed in quantity it has a laxative effect — which justifies the species name dysenterica as well as the local Portuguese name.
Aiming to evaluate the potential use of cagaita in pathologies involving oxidative stress, such as neurodegenerative disorders, this study investigated its antioxidant potential and neuroprotective effect. Electrochemical approaches and aluminium-induced neurotoxicity were used to determine respectively in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of cagaita. Voltammetric experiments were carried out in a three-electrode system, whose working electrode consisted of glassy carbon. The redox behavior of CHE presented similar features to that of quercetin, a widely known antioxidant standard. CHE prevented mouse memory impairment which resulted from aluminium intake.