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Irineu Serra was born in Brazil in to African parents and migrated to the Western Amazon region in , attracted to a boom in the rubber tapping industry. He first drank ayahuasca in the border region between Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru.
As a result of experiencing a series of visions whilst spending eight days in solitude in the forest, he began to conduct spiritual ceremonies using ayahuasca.
Many people came to him sick, seeking healing they could not afford or failed to find in standard medical practice. The hymn collections of early practitioners have since become the sacred works of the doctrine.
Ritual[ edit ] Devotional in context, the songs praise divine principles. The Cross of Caravacca named after the eponymous town, Caravaca , with its double horizontal beam, stands on the altar. Each session begins and ends with Christian prayers. Santo Daime practice features several kinds of rituals. Other rituals focus on the saying of the rosary or on healing. Participants drink Daime in all types of rituals; but the format and focus will differ; concentrations are silent, seated meditations, while hymnals involve dancing and singing hymns while playing maracas.
The Christian core is combined with other elements, such as an emphasis on personal gnosis and responsibility, an animist appreciation of nature, such as the Sun, Moon and Stars, as well as the totemic symbol of the beija-flor hummingbird.
The nature of the work is sometimes personified and addressed as Juramidam, a name disclosed to Irineu in his visionary experience, which means literally, "God jura and his soldiers midam ".
Ayahuasca, consumed by Daimistas in ceremonies, has many different traditional names, but is known within the Santo Daime as Santo Daime, meaning Holy Daime, or simply, Daime, as originally named by Irineu.
Dai-me with a hyphen means "give me" in Portuguese. Participants in the ritual come to submit themselves to a process through which they may learn.
The Daime is thought to reveal both positive and various negative or unresolved aspects of the individual, resulting in difficult "passages" involving the integration of this dissociated psychological content. Ceremonies are referred to as "works". The effects of Daime combined with dancing, singing and concentration for up to twelve hours require and develop stamina or firmeza firmness. Santo Daime hymns[ edit ] Main article: Santo Daime hymns The teachings of Santo Daime are transmitted through its hymns which, when sung, are intended to facilitate first hand experience of the divine.
Musical accompaniment often includes the unison rhythmic playing of maracas, in strict , or time , along with typical folk instruments such as guitars, accordion or flute.
Through the singing of his hymns, the participant may connect with the spirit, teachings, and experience of Irineu and, in many ways, begin walking the same spiritual path. The singing of the hinarios of early and senior members of the church coincides with official dates on the Santo Daime calendar.
The process of experiencing such new songs in this context is referred to as "receiving". Denominational diversification[ edit ] The death of Mestre Irineu in resulted in a diversification within the Santo Daime community. According to church documents, this split also entailed disagreement over the use of cannabis. Subsequently, CEFLURIS formally addressed the issue of the ceremonial use of cannabis, and its use is now officially prohibited in and around the spiritual works.
Main article: Ayahuasca Ayahuasca called "Santo Daime" in Santo Daime religion waiting for the beginning of the ceremonial work. Photo is digitally processed to protect anonymity of participants.
Ayahuasca, which contains the psychoactive compound dimethyltryptamine DMT , has been the subject of increasing legal scrutiny in the last few decades as Santo Daime has expanded. The decoction has been explicitly legal for religious use in Brazil since , while recent[ when? This decision, as the result of specific litigation involving the UDV, applies only to that group, so the legal status of ayahuasca generally remains in a gray area in that country.
It is one of the traditional tools of the shaman in South America, and in many regions is to this day a common medicine used for finding and treating various ailments as well as for its vision-inducing effects, which are said to be profound and life-changing. It is made from two or more plants, one a woody vine Ayahuasca vine or Jagube; generally Banisteriopsis caapi , and the others known as admixtures. DMT occurs naturally in the human body and is speculated to be released at the time of death, but it is normally digested in the stomach if consumed and an MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor , in this case tetrahydroharmine, harmine and harmaline, is needed to allow it to reach the brain in this way, thus the use of the vine.
The Santo Daime Church uses only the Jagube vine and the Viridis leaf, not adding any other plants to the mixture.
Hymns are sung, and Daime is drunk while the men hammer the vine into powder and the women clean and sort the leaves. In some communities there are very clear distinctions. Legal status[ edit ] Due to their usage of ayahuasca as a sacrament and the spread of the religion, Santo Daime has found itself at the center of Court battles and legal wrangling in various countries.
A study was made of the Daime by the CONFEN in   which included visits to the various churches and observation of the making of the Daime.
The work group  which made the study included representatives not only of the CONFEN but also of several other government agencies. The conclusion  of the study was that the Daime was a very positive influence in the community, encouraging social harmony and personal integration.
The study noted that, rather than simply considering the pharmacological analysis of the plants, it was essential to consider the whole context of the use of the tea—religious, social, and cultural. United States[ edit ] In the United States , court battles over ritual use of ayahuasca have mostly been fought by the UDV , and practitioners of the Santo Daime doctrine are watching these events closely.
So far, UDV has been able to continue practicing legally thanks to Supreme Court decisions that soundly rejected attempts by the government to prohibit it. The case, Church of the Holy Light of the Queen v. Mukasey , presided over by Judge Owen M. Panner , was ruled in favor of the Santo Daime church. In March , Panner found that the use of hallucinogenic tea by members of such churches was legal, issuing an injunction barring the government from penalizing them for its consumption.
In France , Santo Daime won a court case allowing them to use the decoction in early ; however, they were not allowed an exception for religious purposes, but rather for the simple reason that they did not perform chemical extractions to end up with pure DMT and harmala and the plants used were not scheduled. The most recent decision came in Italy in ;  an eight-month-long investigation had led to the arrest of 24 Italian Santo Daime members in early , but the May ruling found that no sufficient evidence had been presented to demonstrate that the church members had broken Italian law.
Academic research[ edit ] Two particularly important research projects are worth highlighting. The first is the official investigation made by the Brazilian government at the end of the s, which resulted in the legalization of the religious use of ayahuasca in Brazil in Another longitudinal research using a control group, but also controlling for rural vs.
The study "found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.
I LOVE SANTO DAIME
Acervo de Hinários
Hinos e Hinários do Santo Daime / ICEFLU