MAMMUTHUS MERIDIONALIS PDF

Имел ли он, как более поздние сородичи, шерсть , пока неизвестно. Южный мамонт был одним из более древних видов мамонтов и жил в раннем плейстоцене от 2,6 до 0,7 миллионов лет назад. Он первым покинул африканскую родину мамонтов, проникнув в Евразию и около 1,5 миллиона лет назад проник через естественный мост в Северную Америку. Американская ветвь получила название императорский мамонт Mammuthus imperator , от которого произошёл и колумбийский мамонт. В качестве предков южного мамонта палеонтологи рассматривают два африканских вида Mammuthus africanavus и Mammuthus subplanifrons.

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Mammoth species can be identified from the number of enamel ridges or lamellar plates on their molars: primitive species had few ridges, and the number increased gradually as new species evolved to feed on more abrasive food items. The crowns of the teeth became deeper in height and the skulls became taller to accommodate this. At the same time, the skulls became shorter from front to back to minimise the weight of the head.

The former is thought to be the ancestor of later forms. The earliest European mammoth has been named M. Only its molars are known, which show that it had 8—10 enamel ridges. A population evolved 12—14 ridges, splitting off from and replacing the earlier type, becoming M. In turn, this species was replaced by the steppe mammoth M. Steppe mammoths replaced southern mammoths in Europe in a diachronous mosaic pattern between 1 and 0.

Another estimate gives a shoulder height of 3. Its molars had low crowns and a small number of thick enamel ridges, adapted to a woodland diet of leaves and shrubs; this indicates it lived on a relatively warm climate, which makes it more probable that it lacked dense fur. Deciduous mixed wood provided its habitat and food, which consisted mostly of tree-browse: oak , ash , beech and other familiar European trees, as well as some that are now exotic to the region, such as hemlock , wing nut and hickory.

Further east, discoveries at Ubeidiya Israel and Dmanisi Georgia show the early mammoth living in a partially open habitat with grassy areas, though subsisting on scattered trees and shrubs.

Percy, M. Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world.

New York: J. Pierpont Morgan Fund. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. April Quaternary International: S Quaternary International. Bibcode : QuInt. Lister, A. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. Bibcode : Sci Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetia.

Lister, Adrian; Bahn, Paul. Mammoths: giants of the ice age. Frances Lincoln LTD.

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