TOXOPLASMOSIS CONGENITA PDF

Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL E-mail: moc. Received Apr 22; Accepted Jun All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.

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Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL E-mail: moc. Received Apr 22; Accepted Jun All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus.

Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment.

Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy. Congenitally infected children can be treated, beginning in utero and continuing through the first year of life, to ameliorate the severity of disease. However, despite these many advances in our understanding of congenital toxoplasmosis prevention and treatment, significant areas of study remain: we need better drugs, well defined strategies for screening of pregnant women, improved food safety, and improved diagnostic tests.

Keywords: infant, toxoplasmosis, transmission Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Members of the cat family Felidae are the only known definitive hosts for the sexual stages of T gondii and thus are the main reservoirs of infection.

The 3 stages of this obligate intracellular parasite are as follows: 1 tachyzoites trophozoites , which rapidly proliferate and destroy infected cells during acute infection; 2 bradyzoites, which slowly multiply in tissue cysts; and 3 sporozoites in oocysts. Cats become infected with T gondii by carnivorism or by ingestion of oocysts.

Cats that are allowed to roam outside are much more likely to become infected than domestic cats that are confined indoors. After tissue cysts or oocysts are ingested by the cat, sporozoites are released and invade epithelial cells of the small intestine where they undergo an asexual cycle followed by a sexual cycle and then form oocysts, which are then excreted. The unsporulated ie, noninfective oocyst takes 1 to 5 days after excretion to become sporulated infective.

Although cats shed oocysts for only 1 to 2 weeks, large numbers may be shed, often exceeding per gram of feces.

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Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical features, outcomes, treatment, and prevention

Search Menu Abstract Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment. Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy.

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Toxoplasmosis congénita

Parasitology[ edit ] In its lifecycle, T. Tachyzoites are also known as "tachyzoic merozoites", a descriptive term that conveys more precisely the parasitological nature of this stage. The formation of cysts is in part triggered by the pressure of the host immune system. Bradyzoites, once formed, can remain in the tissues for the lifespan of the host. In a healthy host, if some bradyzoites convert back into active tachyzoites, the immune system will quickly destroy them.

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Toxoplasmosis

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