Plaats bij zeer hoge stofbelasting een extra filtertrap voor de buitenluchtaanzuiging. De tweede filtertrap is het laatste element van de luchtbehandeling. De filtersectie moet goed toegankelijk zijn voor visuele inspectie en om filterelementen te kunnen vervangen. Vanaf 1,3 m met binnenverlichting en vanaf 1,6 m met tweezijdige toegang voor en achter het filter. Een luchtdichte afdichting moet gegarandeerd zijn, let ook op de EN standaard.
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NB For some diseases, the confirmation of the occupational causation must coincide with additional insurance conditions, e. If such conditions are not fulfilled, a formal OD recognition is not possible. Skin contact To stay healthy, the human skin requires a hydrolipidic film on its surface. This is damaged and in serious cases destroyed when the skin comes into contact with siccative and degreasing substances.
Neither can be excluded when working with MWFs . The process is accelerated by the fact that the surface of the skin has a pH of about 5. This can give rise to a neutralisation reaction that is capable of destroying the hydrolipidic film. This process takes place relatively slowly and it may be years before skin problems arise.
Dermatologists refer here to a chronic irritant eczema or allergic eczema. More information on the differences between irritant and allergic eczema can be found in the articles on irritants and occupational allergens. The skin-damaging process advances much more rapidly if the person comes into contact with products with a stronger effect, e.
Owing to their higher concentration of active ingredients, these undiluted products can cause skin disorders faster. These may arise even after just a few days or, at the latest, weeks. Dermatologists refer here to primarily toxically irritant eczema. In the event of even stronger effects on the skin, burns may occur. Allergic eczema may often occur when the skin has already suffered prior damage.
Whether or not an individual worker acquires an allergy is hard to predict. However, specific circumstances that enhance this process are known, such as the frequency and intensity of exposure, and the strength or potency of the allergenic substance. Many biocide ingredients, e. Given sufficient duration and severity, skin diseases can force the affected persons to give up their hazardous work.
Irritant eczema only heals slowly, and allergic eczema recurs if the allergen cannot be permanently avoided. Inhalation As described, MWFs consist of a multitude of components that also constantly change due to substance loss e.
Their main effect on the respiratory passages is by inhalation and subsequent deposition of MWF components from the vapour phase, e. A large part of the inhaled vapour is exhaled again and problems are only to be expected if substances are irritating the respiratory organs, e. With regard to the aerosol phase, its components fine dust, oil droplets can become deposited on the surfaces of the respiratory passages and are physically expelled from the body by coughing.
Even cancer of the respiratory organs can occur caused by carcinogens as mentioned above in chapter 2 and table 1. The inhalation of aerosols of MWFs contaminated with micro-organisms can, depending on the spectrum of the micro-organisms present, cause serious allergic respiratory disease known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis EAA or hypersensitivity pneumonitis HP.
In such cases, the affected persons cannot continue to work in the areas of risk . Swallowing The risk of swallowing MWFs is usually negligible. It may occur in an accident if, for instance, the MWF concentrate is mixed under pressure and supply lines are leaky or burst, or maintenance staff performs work on machine components carrying MWFs, e.
Aspiration The aspiration of MWFs constitutes a special case. Following the swallowing of MWFs, vomiting may arise, depending on the type of MWF, and the result mixture of MWF and stomach acid, possibly as a foam, may enter the lung.
The greatest risk is posed by non-water-miscible MWFs of low viscosity. Above a certain aspirated quantity, this can on principle cause death, but no cases are known in practice. Aspiration must always be distinguished from inhalation, even though the lung is the affected organ in both cases.
For example, enclosure can prevent the splashing of metalworking fluids MWFs , although, in the absence of a suitable ventilation system with an extractor and downstream separator, MWF vapour and aerosol are liberated when the machine enclosure is opened.
Enclosure cannot prevent risks to the skin, as work pieces covered with MWFs are usually manually removed from the machine and re-measured or stacked in the handling devices available. Since oil mist separators are currently incapable of sufficiently intercepting the vapour phase, the vapour concentration will gradually increase, even in workshops with separators.
When planning and implementing protective measures, if the risk cannot be eliminated, reference is often made to the STOP approach, a prioritised series of measures: Substitution, Technical measures, Organisational measures, Personal protection measures. General exposure limits When assessing the risk at MWF workplaces, attention should be directed to substances with occupational exposure limit values OELs. These OELs are listed in specific, nationally established legislation and should not be exceeded.
Monitoring is therefore needed. These values are also important with regard to the safe use of MWF as not respecting these may result in harmful substances building up in the system. Thus, for example with decreasing pH, bacterial growth increased in water-mixed MWFs  . In the event of substances being equally applicable technically, the principle holds that a less hazardous substance should take preference over a toxic one and a non-combustible substance over a combustible one.
The decision must be taken on a case-to-case basis and in relation to the accompanying conditions, e. Examples of substitution in the case of MWFs are substituting secondary amines by primary or tertiary amines; mineral oil by ester oil; avoiding toxic bactericides. Technical solutions Modern metalworking machines are usually enclosed and can be retrofitted with a suitable waste air system an extractor and a suitable separator.
If the air leaving the separator is returned to the workshop and the machining department has a large number of machine tools, an additional system is usually required for a sufficient supply of fresh air. Modern displacement ventilators supply fresh air and blow it upwards from floor level, thereby creating sufficient zones of fresh air  .
Using fully automatic systems, e. Skin contact and exposure are thus minimised. Chips are also removed from the machining zone with a suitable tool, e. Modern computed numeric control CNC machines have safety controls to minimise the risk of accidents and also minimizes spraying of MWF into the workplace.
In some cases machines cannot be closed, e. In these cases additional ventilation is necessary. Organisational solutions After elimination, substitution and collective technical measures at source, organisational measures are the next measures to be taken according to the hierarchy of control measures, such as reducing to a minimum the number of workers exposed or likely to be exposed, reducing to a minimum the duration and intensity of exposure and appropriate hygiene measures.
Safety Data Sheets, training and information on appropriate precautions and actions to be taken in order to safeguard themselves and other workers at the workplace when working with the MWFs used, and information on emergency arrangements should be made available to workers.
Information on the results of the risk assessment and the selected protective measures also has to be provided to workers. Furthermore, first aid and a health surveillance programme adapted to work with the MWFs used in the workplace should be in place. If work clothing is likely to become soaked e. The wearing of gloves is only permitted if there is no risk of entanglement or being caught in the machine.
MWF manufacturers must specify in their safety data sheets what kind of gloves are suitable gloves to work with the MWF in question. In all cases, a skin protection plan is to be drawn up and skin protection agent, suitable hand cleaner and skin care agents must be made available. Details of their effectiveness can be obtained from suppliers. Depending on the rules applicable in the workshop, shoes and hearing protectors must usually be worn.
The wearing of respiratory protection must not be a long-term measure and is only permitted temporarily, e. Home page. Available at:  Eyler, C. Are you ready for ? Available at:  IFA no date. Retrieved on 21 May from:  Contributors.
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